Ammonium aluminium sulfate, also known as ammonium alum or just alum, is a white crystalline double sulfate usually encountered as the dodecahydrate, formula Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O. It is used in small amounts in a variety of niche applications.
Basic Chromium Sulfate is mainly used in tanning of processing leather industry or synthesis of other chromium based re-tanning agents and production of chromic compound. It is also used in dyeing of khaki cloth and in manufacture of chrome-based dyestuffs.
Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a cationic surface-acting agent belonging to the quaternary ammonium group. It has three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and phase transfer agent in the chemical industry. The chemical is a heterogeneous mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides of various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.
Calcium chlorohypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula CaOCl2. As a mixture with Ca(OH)2 and CaCl2, it is marketed as chlorine powder or bleach powder for water treatment and as a bleaching agent. This compound is relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach). It is a white solid, although commercial samples appear yellow. It strongly smells of chlorine, owing to its slow decomposition in moist air. It is not highly soluble in water and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. It has two forms: dry and hydrated. 2Ca(OCl)Cl=CaCl2 + Ca(OCl)2''''''
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. Powdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water. Borax has a wide variety of uses. It is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. It is also used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound, in the manufacture of fiberglass, as a flux in metallurgy, neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, and as a precursor for other boron compounds
a white, crystalline, water-soluble solid, Na 2 B 4 O 7 ⋅5H 2 O, used chiefly for killing weeds, as a water softener, and as a disinfectant and deodorizing agent.
oric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds. It has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite.
The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material or limestone aggregate for roadbuilding or as an ingredient of cement or as the starting material for the preparation of builder's lime by burning in a kiln. However, due to weathering mainly caused by acid rain, calcium carbonate (in limestone form) is no longer used for building purposes on its own, and only as a raw/primary substance for building materials
Calcium chloride is commonly sold as a white crystalline substance that comes in, either a powdered form or a granular form. Calcium chloride has a salty taste and is the main ingredient in many types of food items including snacks. The properties of calcium chloride make it extremely useful.
Calcium peroxide or Calcium dioxide (CaO2) is a solid peroxide with a white or yellowish color. For all practical purposes calcium peroxide is insoluble in water but will dissolve in acid to form hydrogen peroxide. When in contact with water it will immediately begin to decompose releasing oxygen
Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in the industry. Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by the industry, 25% of which is used in paper industry. Sodium hydroxide is also used in manufacturing of sodium salts and detergents, pH regulation, and organic synthesis. It is used in the Bayer process of aluminium production. In bulk, it is most often handled as an aqueous solution since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle. Sodium hydroxide is used in many scenarios where it is desirable to increase the alkalinity of a mixture, or to neutralize acids.
Citric acid is used for its health benefits and as in food, alcohol and insecticide production. It is the most frequently used preservative in the world today. The lemon salt has been used for centuries to conserve meat and fish. It increases the acidity of the bacterial environment, making it difficult for it and the microbes to survive and, most importantly, to reproduce. It is called lemon salt because it was first extracted from a lemon. It looks like a semi-transparent salt and it has no odor. It has a sour, acid taste.
Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a fungicide. However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of copper ions. Mixed with lime it is called Bordeaux mixture and used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries. Another application is Cheshunt compound, a mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. Its use as a herbicide is not agricultural, but instead for control of invasive aquatic plants and the roots of plants near pipes containing water. It is used in swimming pools as an algicide. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fish for parasitic infections, and is also used to remove snails from aquariums. Copper ions are highly toxic to fish, so care must be taken with the dosage. Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulfate. Copper sulfate inhibits growth of bacteria such as Escherichia coli.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the corn kernel. Corn starch is a popular food ingredient used in thickening sauces or soups, and is used in making corn syrup and other sugars
Dextrose Monohydrate (D-glucose) is a sugar that's a stable, odorless, white crystalline powder or colorless crystal. In its pure form, it has a dextrose equivalency (DE) of 100, which indicates that it's 100% pure Dextrose, not a mixture with other substances as well. Dextrose equivalency is a good value to know when purchasing Dextrose supplies.
Dicalcium phosphate is mainly used as a dietary supplement in prepared breakfast cereals, dog treats, enriched flour, and noodle products. It is also used as a tableting agent in some pharmaceutical preparations, including some products meant to eliminate body odor. It is used in poultry feed. It is also used in some toothpastes as a tartar control agent.[2]
Dolomiteis an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The word dolomite is also used to describe the sedimentary carbonate rock, which is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite (also known as dolostone).
Ammonium iron(III) sulfate, NH4Fe(SO4)2·12 H2O, also known as ferric ammonium sulfate (FAS) or iron alum, is a double salt in the class of alums, which consists of compounds with the general formula AB(SO4)2 · 12 H2O.[1] It has the appearance of weakly violet, octahedrical crystals. There has been some discussion regarding the origin of the crystals' colour, with some ascribing it to impurities in the compound,[2] and others claiming it to be a property of the crystal itself
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state. The colour of iron(III) chloride crystals depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is deliquescent, forming hydrated hydrogen chloride mists in moist air. It is rarely observed in its natural form, mineral molysite, known mainly from some fumaroles. When dissolved in water, iron(III) chloride undergoes hydrolysis and gives off heat in an exothermic reaction. The resulting brown, acidic, and corrosive solution is used as a flocculant in sewage treatment and drinking water production, and as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is a fairly strong Lewis acid, and it is used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.
ferrous sulfate is a salt with the formula FeSO4. It is used medically to treat iron deficiency, and also for industrial applications. Known since ancient times as copperas and as green vitriol, the blue-green heptahydrate is the most common form of this material. All iron sulfates dissolve in water to give the same aquo complex [Fe(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry and is paramagnetic.
Formaldehyde is a common precursor to more complex compounds and materials. In approximate order of decreasing consumption, products generated from formaldehyde include urea formaldehyde resin, melamine resin, phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxymethylene plastics, 1,4-butanediol, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate.
Glucose powder is an abundant, simple sugar derived from corn. It is more cheaply produced but not as sweet as high-fructose corn syrup and cane sugar, according to “Time" magazine. In humans, glucose is produced when ingested carbohydrates are broken down to be used as the basic fuel in the body. Glucose is also commonly referred to as dextrose and is included in many food products.
This medication has 2 types of ingredients (emollient, keratolytic) that work together to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin (e.g., eczema, keratosis, xerosis). Dry skin is caused by a loss of water in the upper layer of the skin. Emollients are substances that soften and moisturize the skin and decrease itching and flaking. Emollients/moisturizers work by forming an oily layer on the top of the skin that traps water in the skin. Petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil, and dimethicone are common emollients. Lactic acid, salicylic acid, and urea are keratolytics. They increase moisture in the skin by softening/dissolving the horny substance (keratin) holding the top layer of skin cells together. This helps the dead skin cells fall off and helps the skin keep more water in. Higher strengths of urea are used to treat corns, callous, and some nail problems (e.g., ingrown nails). Urea is also used to help remove dead tissue in some wounds to help wound healing.
Acacia gum has been used in pharmaceuticals as a demulcent. It is used topically for healing wounds and has been shown to inhibit the growth of periodontic bacteria and the early deposition of plaque.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.[3] It can be used as a fertilizer, is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and in blackboard chalk, and is widely mined. A massive fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome, Byzantine empire and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite.
High-maltose glucose syrup is used as a substitute for normal glucose syrup in the production of hard candy: at a given moisture level and temperature, a maltose solution has a lower viscosity than a glucose solution, but will still set to a hard product. Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so that candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.[7]p. 81 Since maltose has a low freezing point, HMCS is useful in frozen desserts.[8] It is also used in brewing, because it has a balanced fermentability, can be added at high concentrations to the wort kettle, increasing throughput, and reduces haze caused by varying malt quality.[2] Another of HMCS's uses is to preserve food. According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, HMCS preserves food by inhibiting fermentation and bacterial growth.[9]
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H 2O 2. In its pure form it is a colorless liquid, slightly more viscous than water; however, for safety reasons it is normally used as an aqueous solution. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond) and finds use as a strong oxidizer, bleaching agent and disinfectant. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or 'high-test peroxide,' is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry
Kaolin is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra.[4] Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as kaolin or china clay
It is a food syrup, made from the hydrolysis of starch. Maize (corn) is commonly used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called "corn syrup", but glucose syrup is also made from other starch crops, including potatoes, wheat, barley, rice and cassava.[1]p. 21 Glucose syrup containing over 90% glucose is used in industrial fermentation,[2] but syrups used in confectionery manufacture contain varying amounts of glucose, maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade, and can typically contain 10% to 43% glucose.[3] Glucose syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into fructose (using an enzymatic process), a sweeter product, high fructose corn syrup can be produced.
liquid paraffin, also known as paraffinum liquidum, is a very highly refined mineral oil used in cosmetics and for medical purposes. This is a UK definition (British Pharmacopoeia) and the term may have different uses in other countries. The cosmetic or medicinal liquid paraffin should not be confused with the paraffin (or kerosene) used as a fuel.
This medication is a mineral supplement used to prevent and treat low amounts ofmagnesium in the blood. Magnesium is very important for the normal functioning of cells, nerves, muscles, bones, and the heart. Usually, a well-balanced diet provides normal blood levels of magnesium. However, certain situations cause your body to lose magnesium faster than you can replace it from your diet. These situations include treatment with "water pills" (diuretics such as furosemide,hydrochlorothiazide), a poor diet, alcoholism, or other medical conditions (e.g., severe diarrhea/vomiting, stomach/intestinal absorption problems, poorly controlled diabetes).
This medication is a mineral supplement used to prevent and treat low amounts ofmagnesium in the blood. Magnesium is very important for the normal functioning of cells, nerves, muscles, bones, and the heart. Usually, a well-balanced diet provides normal blood levels of magnesium. However, certain situations cause your body to lose magnesium faster than you can replace it from your diet. These situations include treatment with "water pills" (diuretics such as furosemide,hydrochlorothiazide), a poor diet, alcoholism, or other medical conditions (e.g., severe diarrhea/vomiting, stomach/intestinal absorption problems, poorly controlled diabetes).
Magnesium sulfate is a common pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salts, used both externally and internally. Epsom salts are used as bath salts. Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative. Magnesium sulfate is the main preparation of intravenous magnesium.
Malachite green is traditionally used as a dye. Millions of kilograms of MG and related triarylmethane dyes are produced annually for this purpose.[3] MG is active against the oomycete Saprolegnia, which infects fish eggs in commercial aquaculture, and other fungi. Furthermore, MG is also used as aparasiticide and antibacterial.[4] It is a very popular treatment against ichthyophthirius in freshwater aquaria. The principal metabolite, LMG, is found in fish treated with malachite green, and this finding is the basis of controversy and government regulation. See also Antimicrobials in aquaculture. MG has frequently been used to catch thieves and pilferers. The bait, usually money, is sprinkled with the anhydrous powder. Anyone handling the contaminated bait will find that on washing the hands, the contact with water will provoke an indelible green stain on the skin lasting for several days.
Maltodextrin is sometimes used in beer brewing to increase the specific gravity of the final product.[4] This improves the mouthfeel of the beer, increaseshead retention and reduces the dryness of the drink. Maltodextrin has no flavor and is not fermented by the yeast, so it does not increase the alcohol content of the brew. It is also used in snacks such as Sun Chips. It is used in "light" peanut butter to reduce the fat content but keep the texture (as in Kraft Light Smooth Peanut Butter). Research is underway at Virginia Tech to use maltodextrin with air to make a new kind of cheaper, refillable, biodegradable battery to generate electricity for cell phones, video game handhelds and other electronic gadgets
Manganese(II) sulfate usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula MnSO4(H2O). This pale pink deliquescent solid is a commercially significant manganese salt. Approximately 260 thousand tonnes of manganese(II) sulfate were produced worldwide in 2005. It is the precursor to manganese metal and many other chemical compounds. Mn-deficient soil is remediated with this salt.
em (Azadirachta indica) is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is native to India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Pakistan. It grows in tropical and semi-tropical regions. It was once the state tree of Osmanistan. Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach up to 15–20 m (about 50–65 feet) tall, and sometimes even to 35–40 m (115–131 feet). It is evergreen, but in serious drought it may lose most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are spread far apart.
Almost all applications of potassium permanganate exploit its oxidizing properties.[3] As a strong oxidant that does not generate toxic byproducts, KMnO4 has many niche uses. Potassium permanganate is one of the principal chemicals used in the film and television industries to "age" props and set dressings. Its oxidising effects create "hundred year old" or "ancient" looks on hessian cloth, ropes, timber and glass
The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state, it is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water and its solutions have a salt-like taste. KCl is used in medicine, scientific applications, and food processing. It occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite and in combination with sodium chloride as sylvinite.
This medication is used on the skin to treat common skin and foot (plantar) warts.Salicylic acid helps cause the wart to gradually peel off. This medication is also used to help remove corns and calluses. This product should not be used on the face or on moles, birthmarks, warts with hair growing from them, or genital/anal warts. Salicylic acid is a keratolytic. It belongs to the same class of drugs as aspirin(salicylates). It works by increasing the amount of moisture in the skin and dissolving the substance that causes the skin cells to stick together. This makes it easier to shed the skin cells. Warts are caused by a virus. Salicylic acid does not affect the virus.
Sodium bicarbonate reduces stomach acid. It is used as an antacid to treat heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. Sodium bicarbonate is a very quick-acting antacid. It should be used only for temporary relief. If you need to treat long-term stomach acid problems (e.g., peptic ulcer disease, GERD), talk with your doctor about other medications.
Sodium Carbonate is a useful chemical compound. It has several uses in industries, laboratories as well as in our very homes. Read on to know more about its main uses. Advertisement Chemically, washing soda is known as sodium carbonate. It is also often referred to as soda ash or soda crystals. Washing soda is a sodium salt and is obtained from carbonic acid. It is widely available in the form of a white powder. It is mostly found in a crystalline form as a heptahydrate (where each sodium carbonate molecule is bonded with seven molecules of water). On exposure to air, it loses the water molecules to form a monohydrate. When it dissolves in water, its molecules break down and ions of sodium and carbonate are released.
Sodium chloride /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔraɪd/,[2] also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major consumer of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.
Sodium perborate monohydrate is a white crystalline odorless powder. The substance is used mainly as bleaching agent in laundry detergents. Minor uses are drain cleaning, multipurpose cleaning, denture cleansing, and tooth whitening. Sodium perborate monohydrate is manufactured from borax, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. First borax is allowed to react with sodium hydroxide to sodium metaborate. Subsequently the sodium metaborate is allowed to react with hydrogen peroxide to sodium perborate monohydrate.
As an oxidizing agent, sodium percarbonate is an ingredient in a number of home and laundry cleaningproducts, including non-chlorine bleach products such as OxiClean, Tide laundry detergent,[1] and Vanish.[5]Dissolved in water, it yields a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (which eventually decomposes to water andoxygen) and sodium carbonate ("soda ash").[1] 2Na2CO3.3H2O2 → 2Na2CO3 + 3H2O2 [5] Sodium percarbonate can be used in organic synthesis as a convenient source of anhydrous H2O2, in particular in solvents that cannot dissolve the carbonate but can leach the H2O2 out of it
It is used in medicine as an analgesic and antipyretic. Sodium salicylate also acts as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and induces apoptosis in cancer cells [5][6][7] and also necrosis.[8] It is also a potential replacement for aspirin for people sensitive to it. It may also be used as a phosphor for the detection of vacuum ultraviolet radiation and electrons
It is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta). This species is native to the North Region of Brazil, but spread throughout the South American continent. The plant was carried by Portuguese and Spanish explorers to most of the West Indies, and continents of Africa and Asia, including the Philippines and Taiwan. It is now cultivated worldwide. A staple food in many world regions, tapioca is used as a thickening agent in various foods.
Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch[1] or glycogen.[2] Dextrins are mixtures of polymers of D-glucose units linked by α-(1→4) or α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Dextrins can be produced from starch using enzymes like amylases, as during digestion in the human body and during malting and mashing,[3] or by applying dry heat under acidic conditions (pyrolysis or roasting). The latter process is used industrially, and also occurs on the surface of bread during the baking process, contributing to flavor, color, and crispness. Dextrins produced by heat are also known as pyrodextrins. During roasting under acid condition the starch hydrolyses and short chained starch parts partially rebranch with α-(1,6) bonds to the degraded starch molecule.[4] See also Maillard Reaction. Dextrins are white, yellow, or brown powders that are partially or fully water-soluble, yielding optically active solutions of low viscosity. Most can be detected with iodine solution, giving a red coloration; one distinguishes erythrodextrin (dextrin that colours red) and achrodextrin (giving no colour). White and yellow dextrins from starch roasted with little or no acid is called British gum.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25),[1] originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for myriad ailments and cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, crack foot,[2] genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant, and remains widely used in cosmetic skin care.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25),[1] originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for myriad ailments and cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, crack foot,[2] genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant, and remains widely used in cosmetic skin care.
Zeolites are widely used as ion-exchange beds in domestic and commercial water purification, softening, and other applications. In chemistry, zeolites are used to separate molecules (only molecules of certain sizes and shapes can pass through), and as traps for molecules so they can be analyzed. Zeolites are also widely used as catalysts and sorbents. Their well-defined pore structure and adjustable acidity make them highly active in a large variety of reactions.[9] Zeolites have the potential of providing precise and specific separation of gases including the removal of H2O, CO2 and SO2 from low-grade natural gasstreams. Other separations include noble gases, N2, O2, freon and formaldehyde. On-Board Oxygen Generating Systems (OBOGS) use zeolites in conjunction with pressure swing adsorption to remove nitrogen from compressed air in order to supply oxygen for aircrews at high altitudes
The hydrates, especially the heptahydrate, are the primary forms used commercially. The main application is as a coagulant in the production of rayon. It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone. Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs.[6] It is used as in electrolytesfor zinc plating, as a mordant in dyeing, as a preservative for skins and leather and in medicine as an astringent and emetic